Radial Polarization Converter from Arcoptix S.A in Switzerland

LBA Laser Beam Analysis Systems from Ophir-Spiricon

LBA Laser Beam Analysis Systems from Ophir-Spiricon

**Radially and azimuthally polarized light generation:**

- "Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications," Qiwen Zhan,
*Advances in Optics and Photonics*, 1, 1-57 (2009).**Review article** - "Focus shaping using cylindrical vector beams."
*Optics Expres*s, 10, 324-331 (2002). - "Method for the generation of arbitrary complex vector wave fronts,"
*Optics Letters*, 27, 1929-1931 (2002). - "Experimental measurement of longitudinal component in the vicinity of focused radially polarized beam."
*Optics Express*, 15, 3550-3556 (2007). This paper detailed experiential setup for generate radially polarized light. Also includes where one can buy the**Radial Analyzer:**This light is incident on a commercially available radial analyzer (Newport Oriel Instruments, part no. 25328). The function of the radial analyzer is to convert the beam from circular polarization into radial or azimuthal polarization depending on the specific properties of the radial analyzer. Our radial analyzer blocks the radial component of polarization and passes the azimuthal component. The following two half-wave plates work as a polarization rotator independent of the initial polarization state. Radially polarized light can be obtained by rotating the azimuthal polarization by 90 degeree. - "Effect of polarization purity of cylindrical vector beam on tightly focused spot,"
*JOSA A*, 30, 1937-1940 (2013). This paper have information of various experimental method to generate radially and azimuthally polarized light. - G. Leuchs's group did a lot work on measuring the depolarized field with knife-edge or nanoparticle. Check the website here.

**Theoretical Model:**

- "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system."
*Proc. R. Soc. London A*, 253, 358-379 (1959).**The first paper gives the analytic express of field focused by a high NA lens.***x*-polarized light focused by an ideal lens. - "Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,"
*Optics Express*, 7, 77-87 (2000).**This paper developed the Richards and Wolf theory by taking into account the incident field distribution.** - "Fast focus field calculations,"
*Optics Express*, 14, 11277-11291 (2006).**This paper developed a fast way of calculating the integration described in 1.** - "Computational methods in vectorial imaging",
*J**ournal of Modern Optics*, 58, 339-364 (2011).**Review paper on filed computation from high NA lens.** - "On the general properties of polarised light conventional and confocal microscopes."
*Optics Communications,*148 300–315 (1998).**Include the different transmission dependence of Tp and Ts. Tp and Ts is the Fresnel transmission equation.** - “Electromagnetic diffraction of light focused through a planar interface between materials of mismatched refractive indices: an integral representation,”
*J. Opt. Soc. Am. A*12, 325-332 (1995).**Can calculate field focused through cover glass.** - "Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,"
*Optics Express,*7, 77-87 (2000).**Can calculate radial polarized light focused by a high NA lens.** - “Roles of polarization, phase and amplitude in solid immersion lens system,”
*Opt. Commun*. 191, 161-172 (2001).**Can calculate radial polarized light focused by a high NA lens through an cover glass.** - "Focusing at small angular apertures in the debye and Kirchhoff approximations,"
*Opt. Commun*. 40, 81-85 (1981).**Scalar theory** **"**Measurement of the three-dimensional intensity distribution in the neighborhood of a paraxial focus,**"***Applied Optics*, 36, 8091-8095 (1997).**Experimental test the Scalar theory in 7**.- "Tight Focusing of Optical Beams; A Review - Part 1" [PDF]

**How to eliminate the depolarizaiotn**

- "Studies on depolarization of light at microscope lens surfaces: I. The origin of stray light by rotation at the lens surfaces,"
*Experimental Cell Research*, 3, 199–208 (1952) - "Studies on depolarization of light at microscope lens surfaces. II. The simultaneous realization of high resolution and high sensitivity with the polarizing microscope."
*J Biophys Biochem Cytol.*Nov 25;3(6):831-8 (1957) - "Polarization aberrations caused by differential transmission and phase shift in high-numerical-aperture lenses: theory, measurement, and rectification."
*Opt. Eng.*41(5), 943-954 (2002)